In general though, the answers are covered by the Space for Cycling campaign 's six themes:
1. Protected space on main roads and at junctions
Often the most direct route for cyclists is along main roads - where they have to mix with fast moving and / or heavy traffic. This can be intimidating for would-be cyclists. We need to see protected cycle lanes on main roads that allow people of all ages and abilities to cycle. This is distinct from inadequate pavement conversions that stop and start. Adequate provision is also needed at major junctions.
2. Removal of through motor traffic on residential streets
Fast or heavy through traffic make residential streets inhospitable for cycling and walking. Cycle-friendly road closures and planters are inexpensive ways to remove non-local motor traffic, creating more pleasant and liveable neighbourhoods. Local residents can still access their properties by car, and deliveries and refuse collections would be unaffected.
3. Lower speed limits
Reducing motor traffic speeds is proven to prevent death and serious injuries to cyclists and pedestrians alike, especially children, with little impact on most journey times. Many areas have already introduced 20mph speed zones, which should be the norm for urban streets. Lower speed limits such as 40mph will also be needed on rural lanes.
4. Cycle-friendly town centres
Our town centres could be revitalised as places where people want to spend time, meet friends, enjoy social activity and access a variety of services. To make these spaces more liveable, we need to prioritise people over motor traffic, prioritising walking and cycling . This can create lively, pleasant high streets that are economically viable and socially vibrant.
5. Routes through green spaces and parks
Greenways and parks provide some of the most appealing cycling environments, attracting groups currently under-represented among cyclists (for example, older people). People use them for all kinds of purposes: from commuting to work, to weekend family outings, to shopping trips. Considerate cyclists and pedestrians can happily get along together with the right facilities.
6. Safe routes to schools
Bringing up our children to be healthy, independent adults is one of the most important things we can do, and helping them to cycle is one of the best ways to do it. Cycling and walking to school are good for children's physical and mental health - and our national child obesity levels are among the highest in Europe. Less driving on the school run will make the streets safer and nicer for all.