This is an introduction to adapted bikes, but it is also important to remember that it's possible to modify a standard 2-wheel bike to suit your needs (e.g. by wiring brakes and gears onto one handle, adding a foot plate to a pedal or increasing handle bar height).
We mention a few particular manufacturers of disability cycles, but there are many other good makers all over the world - so it's worth exploring further.
Tricycles have 3 wheels, which means that the rider does not need to be able to balance. This is particularly useful for people with learning disabilities, such as Dyspraxia, and those recovering from illnesses (strokes, for example).
Tricycles can be fitted with foot plates to make it easier for riders to rotate the pedals and they come in upright or recumbent (horizontal sitting position). For adults and children with balance issues, stabilisers can also be fitted to standard bikes, which makes them more like tricycles.
Prices range from £500 up to £3000. The most well known UK manufacturer is Stratford based Pashley Cycles who made bikes for Royal Mail.
Tandems can have 2, 3 or 4 wheels and are made for 2 people to ride together. Cycle configurations may have one rider in front of the other, or side by side in the case of 3 and 4 wheeled machines.
Tandems are particularly helpful when there's a need to take over the pedalling or steering. 2-wheeled tandems are particularly good for people with visual impairments too.
Another possibility for partnered riding is a ‘tag along’ which consists of half a bike that bolts on to a standard 2-wheel bike. These are more commonly used for children, but there are adult versions on the market.
Tandem prices vary from £500-£6000.
Hand powered cycles work along the same principle as standard cycles. The pedals are replaced with handles that also steer, and riders use their arms to push the handles around to drive the chain and wheels.
Most hand cycles have 3 wheels, although some have 4 wheels. 4-wheel cycles may have power assistance instead of the rider turning handles,or they may be built for going down hill, in which case gravity powers the bike.
As with tricycles, hand cycles can have upright seats or low down recumbent seats. Specialist ‘clip on’ cycles are also available that can be attached directly to a persons wheelchair.
Hand cycles are used by people with limited or no lower body mobility, e.g. because of paraplegia, leg amputations and those with joint problems such as arthritis. Hand cycles are also useful for rebuilding upper body strength - e.g. by those recovering from stroke.
There is huge variation in hand cycle prices. Basic models start at around £500, but road and off road racing machines could cost thousands.
Wheel chair cycles
Although there may not be a cycle to suit every need, there are some that offer the same feeling of propulsion, without involving riding. For example, a wheelchair user can transfer into a seat on the front of a cycle that someone else rides and steers.
Another cycle from the manufacturer Van Raam allows wheelchairs to be loaded onto a front trailer that is attached to a cycle. These cycles often have a power assist option to provide the rider with a boost. These are ideal for people with severe disabilities and conditions such as advanced cerebral palsy or complete paralysis.
Prices for these kinds of cycles range from £4500 - £7000.
Buying an adapted cycle
People registered as disabled they may also qualify for VAT exemption on the price of buying an adapted cycle, so check with the supplier before you make your purchases.